Well Irritable Bowel Syndrome is really nota disease in itself its a description of multiple symptoms that when put together are a syndromethat are often will cause symptoms in both men, women, and children. It is very commonbut thankfully life threatening in anyway. The symptoms can be varied but the most commonones would include things like bloating, distension, abdominal pain, alternating both diarrheaand constipation. These symptoms could be very concerning for patients and can reallylimit their life style but once again its really not life threatening. It's a descriptionof really the neural impulses that colon in particular is receiving and if you think ofit as almost like a fray ends of an electrical
wire there is increased amounts of impulsesthat are irritation the colon and the colon walls and the muscular track and is believedto cause spasm and often that's what creates the sensation of bloating, gas, and abdominalpain. IBS is a life long syndrome and not a life threatening syndrome and patients typicallywill have symptoms that come and go and sometimes exacerbated by types of stress or emotionalchanges. Thank you for choosing Saint Peter's.
GRDC PreEmergent Herbicides Pt 2 Incorporation by Sowing
PreEmergent Herbicides: Pt.2 Incorporationby Sowing John Cameron: ICAN Director AgriculturalConsultant Due to herbicide resistance many growers haverun out of a lot of knockdown chemistries and having to look more at preemergents tofill the gap. There's a few issues that can occur when you're using preemergent herbicidesand a lot of this is happening at sowing so what we've done is look at a range of tillageand sowing implements and how they've performed in different stubble and soil situations andevaluated how they've performed. Narrator: Darryl AndersonIn the southern and western grains regions,
growers have been using preemergent herbicidesas a significant component of weed management in winter crops for sometime.By comparison, many northern region growers still rely on postemergent herbicides. However,as the number of herbicide resistant weed populations increases, there's a growing realisationthat the farming system must change. Increased reliance on preemergent herbicidesis one component of farming system change. While residual herbicides can help maintaina profitable farming system, potential downside issues need to be managed.Issues such as recropping limitations, crop safety and weed control at sowing when residualherbicides are used with different types of
seeding equipment.To obtain the best possible performance from preemergent herbicides, it's critical toknow how they work and understand how to manage the risks surrounding herbicide efficacy andselectivity to emerging crops. In recent years, crop damage resulting fromthe use of pre emergent herbicides has been experienced when; the seeder travels too fastand treated soil is thrown into adjoining crop rows; the seeding depth is too shallow;the seed slot is not closed properly; or when there's heavy rain after sowing.Grass herbicides applied prior to winter cereals can be used safely and effectively.To explain how most of the pre emergent herbicides
used for grass control in cereals work here'sinternational authority on herbicide and soil interaction Dale Shaner explaining what canhappen, using pyroxasulfone as an example. Dale Shaner: USDA Ag Research ServiceThese herbicides are taken up primarily through the shoots, as the shoot emerges. And if youhave seed that's fairly shallow so that the herbicide can get to the seed before it startsemerging you'll get much more injury under those circumstances because the seed's tryingto germinate and send up its coleoptile in the presence of high concentrations of theherbicide. We found you can get increased injury under those circumstances. So for exampleif you have a very light soil and you have
a heavy rainfall right after planting or priorto the wheat coming up you can find that the pyroxasulfone can move down into that seedzone and actually cause more injury under those circumstances than if it was a heaviersoil and the herbicide remains above the seed so that the coleoptile can actually get through.You don't want the growing points to be exposed to the herbicide. Narrator:Some key preemergent herbicides used at sowing for grass weed control in winter crops includetriallate, trifluralin, smetolachlor and prosulfocarb, the actives in Boxer Gold, propyzamideand pyroxasulfone.
Triallate and trifluralin are consideredvolatile and may be subject to large volatility losses if not incorporated or covered withsoil soon after application. Animation showing herbicide motion in soil displaced by tynes to the interrow adjoining crop rows.With a single pass preseeding in a notillpaddock, it's likely tyned equipment will be needed, and require sowing speed; soilcondition; and row spacing; to be inbalance so soil displaced from the crop row is thrownonto the interrow and not into adjoining crop rows, where a concentration of herbicidetreated soil would increase the likelihood of crop damage.Displacing treated soil from the crop row during the seeding process also relocatesmost of the weed seed into the interrow area. Animation showing weed seed remaining in crop row.